Parenting is complicated because every child is unique and each situation is different. This means that parents can seemingly lose their minds trying to decide the best way to help their child grow in love.
Diane Baumrind, a research psychologist for the Institute of Human Develop at Berkeley, looked at the relationships between parental behavior and children’s well being. She found that the parenting style used by parents directly impacted a child’s well-being.
Her research found that there are two critical elements to parenting; the first is responsiveness and the second is demandingness. Parental responsiveness (also referred to as parental warmth or supportiveness) refers to the extent to which parents intentionally foster the child’s uniqueness, self-discipline, and self-assertion by being connected, supportive, and accepting children’s special needs and demands. Parental demandingness (also referred to as behavioral control) refers to the standards, responsibilities and consequences parents have for their children inside the family, with their peers and within the larger community.
Parenting StylesBaumrind found that there were four possible parenting styles. They are; Authoritarian These parents are controlling, strict and demand instant obedience. When a conflict occurs authoritarian parents give no consideration to the child’s view, make no attempt to explain their decision and often say, “ do it my way or else!”
Authoritative These parents respond to their children’s need but set limits and explain the reasons for their actions. Children are expected to be mature and demonstrate self control but they are also encouraged to be independent and reach their full potential. Authoritative parents work to balance individual rights with good socialization.
Permissive These parents are indulgent and tolerant. They accept the views of their children and allow acting out. They rarely use punishments or make demands of their children. It is difficult to distinguish between indulgence and indifference with these parents.
Uninvolved These parents demand little and respond minimally. In extreme cases, this parenting style might entail neglect and rejection.
What Child Outcomes Result from Each Parenting Style?